Derivation is the formation of a new word or inflectable stem from another word or stem. It typically occurs by the addition of an affix.
The derived word is often of a different word class from the original. It may thus take the inflectional affixes of the new word class.
In contrast to inflection, derivation:
- is not obligatory
- typically produces a greater change of meaning from the original form, and
- is more likely to result in a form which has a somewhat idiosyncratic meaning.
- often changes the grammatical category of a root
Kindness is derived from kind.
Joyful is derived from joy.
Amazement is derived from amaze.
Speaker is derived from speak.
National is derived from nation.